Open Access: Self-archiving (Green OA)

Open Access services and guidance for researchers at the University of Helsinki. #openaccess #openscience #ORCID #selfarchiving



UH researcher, send author´s accepted manuscript file to be deposited in the library:

Please, attach also publication information (title / number) to come.

NB! If you have research funding from the Research Council of Finland (from 2021 onward), please include this information in to your message.

We will find out publishing policy and conditions. Additional information: article versions.
If you are unsure which version of your publication you are entitled to self-archive, send all versions to us.

HELDA - Digital Repository of the University of Helsinki

HELDA serves as an open full text repository and open access publishing platform for research articles and institutional series, as well as for teaching and research material produced by the departments and faculties of the University. Helda is also suitable publishing platform for monographs.

The archive ensures long-term storage and provides each item with a permanent web address i. e. Helda offers availability, longevity, and functionality to your digitally stored work.

Researchers at University of Helsinki self-archive their research publications to Helda via TUHAT. They can also send publications to the library´s deposit service.

Author Identifiers


Open Author Identifier

Web of Science Researcher Profile and ID

Open Repositories

HELDA -  full text repository for research articles produced by University of Helsinki. 

OpenDOAR - The Directory of Open Access Repositories

ROAR - Registry of Open Access Repositories

CORE -  COnnecting REpositories

Repository maps

Zenodo -  open dependable home for the long-tail of science, enabling researchers to share and preserve any research outputs in any size, any format and from any science. Maintained by CERN.

OpenAIRE - publications and datasets from repositories and OA-journals

Preprint and preprint services

A preprint is the initial manuscript version of an article. It can refer to the first version of the article sent to a journal, which is typically then peer-reviewed, or the version of an article that is archived and published in preprint services. The purpose is to gather feedback and improve the article before publication. Sometimes, a preprint may be published solely to "reserve" a certain research topic for one's own use.

If necessary, a preprint can also be published in the university research information system Tuhat, choosing the version "Submitted manuscript." This version is recommended to be removed and replaced with the post-print version ("Accepted author manuscript") as the publication process progresses.

Preprint servers were initially established mainly in the natural and medical sciences, but nowadays they are available in almost all disciplines. Some well-known ones include ArXiv, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, Europe PMC, and OSF.

Open Access -service at HUlib

Questions about self-archiving or Open Access Publishing?
Feedback concerning this guide?

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Green Open Access

Why should I self-archive to TUHAT?

University of Helsinki digital archive is the reliable and primary repository to your publications, because:
  • University of Helsinki requires open access depositing via TUHAT (self-archiving). From TUHAT the information is updated directly to digital repository HELDA.
  • Long-term storage and access of your publications are secured.
  • Publications get the permanent referable web address.
  • Publications are regularly scanned to the international digital archives and portals.
  • Publications can be easily found by search engines, such as Google Scholar.
  • Funding providers more and more often demand open access publishing from the projects they provide funding. OA publications effect also UH funding in general.
  • Open publishing in Helsinki University´s digital archive is always a free alternative to the researcher.
  • Usually publishers allow self-archiving of author´s accepted manuscript (AAM).

Open Access archiving / University of Helsinki

Self-archiving to TUHAT

Researchers affiliated with the University to self-archive their scientific articles in the University’s Open Access repository HELDA via the research information system TUHAT.

  • The version to upload is, if possible (taking notice of publisher´s conditions), the final accepted manuscript (after peer-review, before the publisher’s typesetting).
  • Always retain the final draft of your article. If necessary, request it to yourself from the corresponding author.

  • Our instructions take notice of alignments for Open Science defined by Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture.

  • More information on researchers' information use on TUHAT-guide.

Your Article's way via Tuhat to Helda

Explanations for different versions / self-archiving to TUHAT

Publisher´s pdf
Alternative terminology
submitted version, author-submitted article, pre-refereeing, author’s draft final draft, accepted article, Author's Accepted Manuscript (AAM), author's post-print final published article, publisher's version
Manuscript before peer-review

Version of manuscript, improved and corrected by the peer-reviewing. Publisher´s layout and page numbers excluded.

Published article, final publisher´s version with the layout.
Version to self-archive to TUHAT
Normally not self-archived. Secondary option in case the publisher does not approve open access self-archiving of the publisher´s pdf. The most common case. Primarily self-archived version if publisher approves self-archiving into the institutional oa-repository.

Typeset proof refers to the version of an accepted manuscript that includes final layout and other specifications from the publisher. Proof version is not suitable for self-archiving.

Pre-proof on the other hand is usually suitable for self-archiving.

Legal Issues

1. Publishing rights in a publishing contract with the publisher

The University of Helsinki recommends that researchers only sign over simple publishing rights in the publishing contract, i.e., retain the right to use the text elsewhere.

If the researcher concludes a publishing contract which assigns to the publisher all rights to the article, the publisher or journal may prohibit self-archiving. In this case, the researcher must notify the University of any deviation from the open access policy when entering information in TUHAT.

2. Self-archiving an article with multiple authors

Researchers should inform their co-authors about the self-archiving requirement of the University of Helsinki and request their permission to self-archive their work already during the writing process. If the article in question has already been published, the permission to self-archive the text must be obtained from all authors afterwards. 

Articles may also contain copyrighted material belonging to a third party, such as illustrations or graphics. If the permission to use these materials applies only to printed editions, separate permission is required to use them for self-archiving purposes.

3. Publishers’ terms and conditions regarding self-archiving

Most academic publishers and publications allow researchers to save a copy of their final, peer-reviewed version (post-print or final draft) of their article in an open digital repository. Information the self-archiving policies of different publishers and publications can be found in the SHERPA/RoMEO service.

Information may also be found on the web pages of the journals or the publishers, for example:

If information on the journal’s publishing policy is unavailable and the publishing contract offered by the publisher or journal fails to mention the matter, researchers can suggest that such a clause be added to the contract.

The publisher may also set an embargo period during which the article may not be publicly accessible online. When an article is uploaded to the open access repository of the University of Helsinki, the Library checks the applicable open access terms and conditions and ensures that the embargo period (if any) is observed.

The Helsinki University Library is happy to help you with any questions concerning self-archiving. contact:

Pros and cons of commercial repositories

Commercial repositories such as or Research Gate give you the possibility to increase web presence and disseminate your work. Always check from Sherpa/Romeo publisher´s conditions concerning social networking. 

Probably increases one’s impact and visibility. Remember first to self-archive your work to the institutional repository (Helda in University of Helsinki).

Long-term access and storage are not guaranteed. No permanent identifiers, quality or version control.

Not an option for permanent archiving or citations in academical publications.

Commercial repositories include many web 2.0 features, such as following one’s colleagues or getting followed by them.

Requires passwords and logging in. Can without your consent use the data you (or your friends) have uploaded and sell it to the third parties.

Discussion forums and direct feedback from the research community.

Multinational big companies may buy the repository. They may also change their policies anytime and turn from free to non-free or introduce fees (case: or Spotify).

Possibility to archive teaching material, drafts and other material.

Often include ads and send you spam.


General Information and terminology

Green Open Access: depositing an article or a version of it into the institutional repository. Usually free of charge.

Gold Open Access: publication is immediately provided in oa mode through a high-quality open access publication.The publisher of the oa journal may charge an open access fee (article processing charge).

Hybrid open access: Research articles can be made openly accessible in a journal by paying an extra fee. Journal´s other articles still remain behind a paywall.

Article processing charge (APC) and Book processing charge (BPC) are payments charged by the OA publisher from the author or her/his institution to cover various publishing costs. Both Gold and Hybrid OA based journals can charge APCs.

Embargo: A period of time defined by the publisher,  during which the author has no permission to self-archive. Calculated from the publishing date of the original publication.

Double dipping: Institutions (libraries, universities) often have to pay twice for the same content when publishing in hybrid Open Access Journals.

♦ The scientific level of journals can be assessed for instance through Impact factors and through Publication Forum rating.

Impact factors: The journal impact factors are updated annually and can be found from the Clarivate Analytics Journal Citation Reports database. Most of the OA-journals have also an impact factor. You can get more information about impact factors and evaluation in general from Metrics Guide.

The Publication Forum – The classifications of scientific publication channels maintained by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies.

JuFo Search Form - Search journals, conferences and publishers. The search can be targeted at specific fields of research.


A period of time defined by the publisher, calculated from the publishing date of the original publication, during which the author has no permission to publish a self-archived open access copy of the publication in question. Information found in SHERPARoMEO.

Embargo times

FinElib and AAAS self-archiving agreement (Science journals)

FinElib and AAAS ( have agreed that AAM versions of articles published during period 2023-2024, can be self-archived immediately without embargo and under CC BY license. The agreement applies to affiliated researchers of the University of Helsinki.

The self-archived article must:

  • Clearly indicate that it is an AAM version.
  • Include a link to the final published version of the article (on the publisher's server).
  •  Indicate that the AAM version is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Self-archiving service promise

Helsinki University Library aims to make research publications in all disciplines openly available in the research portal in a timely and comprehensive manner, and in the University’s publication repository, where they are readily available.

As a rule, the Library will self-archive research publications by members of the University community in order to make researchers' work easier. Researchers may also independently self-archive their work through the research information system. The Library provides information and support and actively develops its self-archiving processes.

Open access to publications serves research, teaching and the whole of society. By self-archiving publications of scholars at the University, the Library promotes an open-access publishing culture. Open access to research-based information realises the values of the University: truth, Bildung, freedom and inclusivity.

Academic social networking sites

Ensure visibility first in TUHAT

Remember to self-archive your scientific articles primarily in the University’s research information system TUHAT. After ensuring the long term storage and accessibility, you can also promote your research through social networking sites.

Visibility in social networking sites

Academic social networking spaces like ResearchGate and offer possibilities for researchers to share their articles. The permission to share published articles must anyhow be checked from the publisher. However, these services don´t meet the terms of open access required by the most funding providers.

The use of persistent researcher or article identifiers, persistent availability or the harvesting of the data is not guaranteed in networking sites. There can also arise reasonable doubts of following the immaterial rights of the articles´s owner. Also (self)reuse of the data can be restricted.

Information about self-archiving policies of different publishers and publications can be found in the SHERPA/RoMEO service.