Philosophy: Philosophers

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Ancient Philosophers

Thales (624-546 BC)

Anaximander (610-546 BC)

Anaximenes (585-528 BC)

Pythagoras (570-495 BC)

Heraclitus (535-475 BC)

Anaxagoras (510-428 BC)

Parmenides (Late 6th cn.—Mid 5th cn BC)

Zeno (490-430 BC)

Democritus (460-370 BC)

Socrates (470-399 BC)

Plato (428-348 BC)

Aristotle (384–322 BC)

Epicurus (341-270 BC)

Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC)

Lucretius (99 - 55 BC)

Seneca the Younger (4 BC - 65 AD)

Epictetus (50-135)

Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

Sextus Empiricus (160-210)

Plotinus (204-270)

Augustine (354-430)

Boethius (480-524)

Medieval Philosophers

Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) (980-1037)

Al-Ghazali (1058-1111)

Pierre Abélard (1079-1142)

Anselm of Canterbury (1093-1109)

Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126-1198)

Albertus Magnus (1200-1280)

Roger Bacon (1214-1292)

Henry of Ghent (1217-1293)

Bonaventure (1221-1274)

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

Peter Olivi (1248-1298)

Duns Scotus (1266-1308)

Walter Burley (1275-1344)

William Ockham (1285-1347)

Jean Buridan (1295-1363)

Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464)

Renaissance and Early Modern Philosophers

Marcilio Ficino (1433-1499)

Erasmus (1466-1536)

Niccolò Macchiavelli (1469-1527)

Thomas More (1478-1535)

Petrus Ramus (1515-1572)

Jacopo Zabarella (1533-1589)

Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)

Francisco Suárez (1548-1617)

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

Hugo Grotius (1583-1645)

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)

René Descartes (1596-1650)

Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694)

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673)

Robert Boyle (1627-1691)

Anne Conway (1631-1679)

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)

John Locke (1632-1704)

Nicolas Malebranche (1632-1715)

Isaac Newton (1642-1726)

G. W. Leibniz (1646-1716)

Pierre Bayle (1647-1706)

Mary Astell (1666-1731)

Giambattista Vico (1668-1744)

Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713)

Samuel Clarke (1675-1729)

Christian Wolff (1679-1754)

George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Montesquieu (1689-1755)

Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746)

Voltaire (1694-1778)

Émilie de Châtelet (1706-1749)

Thomas Reid (1710-1796)

David Hume (1711-1776)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1714-1780)

Baron D'Holbach (1723-1789)

Adam Smith (1723-1790)

Edmund Burke (1729-1797)

Medieval Philosophy Resources

Renaissance and Early Modern Philosophy Resources

World Philosophy Resources

Resources for History of Philosophy

18th Century Philosophers

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Moses Mendehlsson (1729-1786)

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

Johan Gottfried Herder (1744-1803)

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)

Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834)

G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831)

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854)

Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848)

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

William Whewell (1794-1866)

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

19th Century Philosophers

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)

Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859)

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Sören Kierkegaard (1813-1855)

George Boole (1815-1864)

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)

Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900)

Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914)

William James (1842-1910)

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

F. H. Bradley (1846-1924)

Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

John Dewey (1859-1952)

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

George Santayana (1863-1952)

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

G. E. Moore (1873-1958)

Max Scheler (1874-1928)

Martin Buber (1878-1965)

C. D. Broad (1887-1971)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)

20th Century Philosophers

Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976)

Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900-2002)

Jacques Lacan (1901- 1981)

Karl Popper (1902-1994)

Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969)

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)

Hannah Arendt (1906-1975)

Emmanuel Lévinas (1906-1995)

Nelson Goodman (1906-1998)

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961)

Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)

Willard van Orman Quine (1908-2000)

Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997)

Alfred J. Ayer (1910-1989)

J. L. Austin (1911-1960)

Wilfrid Sellars (1912-1989)

Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005)

Roderick Chisholm (1916-1999)

Donald Davidson (1917-2003)

Louis Althusser (1918-1990)

Elisabeth Anscombe (1919-2001)

P. F. Strawson (1919-2006)

John Rawls (1921-2002)

Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)

Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995)

Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

Hilary Putnam (1926-2016)

Stanley Cavell (1926-)

Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)

Jürgen Habermas (1929-)

Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)

Luce Irigaray (1930-)

Richard Rorty (1931-2007)

John Searle (1932-)

Alain Badiou (1937-)

Thomas Nagel (1937-)

Robert Nozick (1938-2002)

Jacques Rancière (1940-)

Saul Kripke (1940-)

David Lewis (1941-2001)

John McDowell (1941-)

Stephen Stich (1943-)

Jean-Luc Marion (1946-)

Slavoj Zizek (1949-)

Robert Brandom (1950-)

Contemporary philosophers